Vertebrate mRNAs are frequently targeted for post-transcriptional repression by microRNAs (miRNAs) through mechanisms involving pairing of 3' UTR seed matches to bases at the 5' end of miRNAs. Through analysis of expression array data following miRNA or siRNA overexpression or inhibition, we found that mRNA fold change increases multiplicatively (i.e., log-additively) with seed match count and that a single 8 mer seed match mediates down-regulation comparable to two 7 mer seed matches.
NONCODE is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), that is to say, RNAs that function without being translated into proteins. All ncRNAs in NONCODE were filtered automatically from literature and GenBank, and were later manually curated. The distinctive features of NONCODE are as follows: (i) the ncRNAs in NONCODE include almost all the types of ncRNAs, except transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs. (ii) All ncRNA sequences and their related information (e.g.
Plants and animals use small RNAs (microRNAs [miRNAs] and siRNAs) as guides for posttranscriptional and epigenetic regulation. In plants, miRNAs and trans-acting (ta) siRNAs form through distinct biogenesis pathways, although they both interact with target transcripts and guide cleavage. An integrated approach to identify targets of Arabidopsis thaliana miRNAs and ta-siRNAs revealed several new classes of small RNA-regulated genes, including conventional genes such as Argonaute2 and an E2-ubiquitin conjugating enzyme.
Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) assemble into RISC, the RNA-induced silencing complex, which cleaves complementary mRNAs. Despite their fluctuating efficacy, siRNAs are widely used to assess gene function. Although this limitation could be ascribed, in part, to variations in the assembly and activation of RISC, downstream events in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, such as target site accessibility, have so far not been investigated extensively.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in eukaryotes guide post-transcriptional regulation by means of targeted RNA degradation and translational arrest. They are released by a Dicer nuclease as a 21-24-nucleotide RNA duplex from a precursor in which an imperfectly matched inverted repeat forms a partly double-stranded region. One of the two strands is then recruited by an Argonaute nuclease that is the effector protein of the silencing mechanism. Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are similar to miRNAs, are also produced by Dicer but the precursors are perfectly double-stranded RNA.
Short interfering RNAs are used in functional genomics studies to knockdown a single gene in a reversible manner. The results of siRNA experiments are highly dependent on the choice of siRNA sequence. In order to evaluate siRNA design rules, we collected a database of 398 siRNAs of known efficacy from 92 genes. We used this database to evaluate previously proposed rules from smaller datasets, and to find a new set of rules that are optimal for the entire database. We also trained a regression tree with full cross-validation.
siDirect (http://design.RNAi.jp/) is a web-based online software system for computing highly effective small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences with maximum target-specificity for mammalian RNA interference (RNAi). Highly effective siRNA sequences are selected using novel guidelines that were established through an extensive study of the relationship between siRNA sequences and RNAi activity.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knock-down is a widely used experimental approach to characterizing gene function. Although siRNAs are designed to guide the cleavage of perfectly complementary mRNA targets, acting similarly to microRNAs (miRNAs), siRNAs down-regulate the expression of hundreds of genes to which they have only partial complementarity. Prediction of these siRNA 'off-targets' remains difficult, due to the incomplete understanding of siRNA/miRNA-target interactions.
The Sfold web server provides user-friendly access to Sfold, a recently developed nucleic acid folding software package, via the World Wide Web (WWW). The software is based on a new statistical sampling paradigm for the prediction of RNA secondary structure. One of the main objectives of this software is to offer computational tools for the rational design of RNA-targeting nucleic acids, which include small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), antisense oligonucleotides and trans-cleaving ribozymes for gene knock-down studies.
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) have been gaining popularity as the gene knock-down tool of choice by many researchers because of the clean nature of their workings as well as the technical simplicity and cost efficiency in their applications. We have constructed siRecords, a database of siRNAs experimentally tested by researchers with consistent efficacy ratings.